ARM 之七 主流编译器(armcc、iar、gcc for arm)详细介绍

必备

  在讲解各编译器之前,必须先了解一下以下文件。这些文件在编译器目录下或者编译生成目标平台的可执行程序时经常见到。此外,还需要注意区分 Windows 平台 和 Linux 平台的文件。

  • .o 文件: 指的是 object 文件,俗称目标文件。在 Linux 下扩展名缩写为 .o,在 windows 下通常为 .obj 文件。
  • .a 文件: 指的是 archive 文件,俗称静态库文件。在 Linux 下扩展名缩写为 .a,在 windows 下通常为 .lib 文件。
  • .so 文件: 指的是 shared object 文件,用于动态连接的。在 Linux 下扩展名缩写为 .so,在 windows 下通常为 .dll 文件。

.o 文件是链接文件,.a 是静态库文件,需要 .o 文件生成,作为一个库为外部程序提供函数接口。详细的可以看一下博文 ARM 之一 镜像文件(Image)/可执行文件/ELF文件/对象文件 详解

  在交叉编译工具链目录中,有大量的 .o 和 .a 文件。这些文件在我们编译目标平台时会被用到!为什么在Windows下面的编译工具链中会有这么多的 .o 和 .a 文件呢?这是因为编译工具链是在 Linux 系统 中编译生成的! 。看下图:
在这里插入图片描述
如果有亲自编译过交叉编译工具链,那么就一定会见到 build、host 和 target 这几个参数:

  • –build=编译该软件(就是指的交叉编译工具链本身)所使用的平台
  • –host=该软件(就是指的交叉编译工具链本身)将运行的平台
  • –target=该软件(就是指的交叉编译工具链本身)所要处理的目标平台。即交叉编译工具链编译出来的程序运行的平台

比较

目前,针对于 ARM 平台的主流编译器主要有以下三者:

比较ARMCCIARGCC for ARM
命令行工具随IDE发布,也独立提供仅随其IDE发布,不独立提供独立提供
开发商ARMIARARM、Linaro、Mentor
支持的平台Windows、LinuxWindowsWindows、Linux、Mac(部分)
配套 IDEKeil MDK、ARM Development Studio 5、ADSIAR EMBEDDED WORKBENCH FOR ARM除以上两者外的其他支持ARM的IDE,例如:eclipse、Visual Studio
官网https://developer.arm.com/tools-and-software/embedded/arm-compiler/downloadshttps://www.iar.com/iar-embedded-workbench/1. https://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded
2. https://developer.arm.com/tools-and-software/open-source-software/developer-tools/gnu-toolchain/gnu-rm/downloads

ARM

  ARM 官网上除了提供了配套 IDE(参考博文《ARM 之 各集成开发环境(IDE)说明(Keil、RVDS、ADS、DS-5、MDK)》) 以外,每次都会提供编译器的独立下载。用户可以单独安装编译器,编译器采用命令行形式使用。
  也就是说,ARM 的 IDE 和编译器是相互独立的,使用者可以为同一个IDE配置不同版本的编译器!目前,ARM 官方提供两个版本的编译器,如下图所示:
在这里插入图片描述
  其中,Arm Compiler 6 被 ARM 称为是 Arm Compiler 5 的替代者!相比于 Arm Compiler 5 的使用的 Edison Design Group 编译器前端,Arm Compiler 6 将编译器前端换为了基于 LLVM 的 Clang!
在这里插入图片描述
在 ARM 官网的介绍中,有如下一段话
General update releases on the last branch, version 5.06, ended in H2 2017 with 5.06u6. After this, further support and maintenance will be available through Arm Compiler Long Term Maintenance releases with maintenance continuing until at least summer 2020. Arm Compiler 5.06 for Certification and Arm Compiler 5.06 Long Term Maintenance releases will each be supported by an Arm Compiler Qualification Kit.
大意就是,Arm Compiler 5 以后就要退出舞台了!在 ARM 内核的支持上,Arm Compiler 6 也要比 Arm Compiler 5 完善的多!
目前,ARM 官方的 IDE 都会包含这两个版本的编译器。例如,在 Keil MDK 的安装目录下面会有如下两个目录,分别对应了 Arm Compiler 5 和 Arm Compiler 6
在这里插入图片描述
上面说了,以上编译器 ARM 也提供独立下载安装,具体见上文的官网地址即可!我本身安装了多个版本的 ARM编译器,如下:
在这里插入图片描述

  1. Edison Design Group 是一家公司,靠卖产品给卖编译器的公司生存,它卖的是前端,包括 C++、Java 和 Fortran 前端,全世界几乎所有商用编译器,都会用这家公司的前端。最重要的,这家公司只有 5 个人。
    这五个人依次是:Mike Miller, Daveed Vandevoorde, Steve Adamczyk, John Spicer, Mike Herricl。Daveed Vandevoorde 写过两本书《C++ Templates》和《C++ Solutions》,Mike Miller是C++专家,实现部分C++的功能。Mike Herrick在Bell实验室呆了19年。Steve Adamczyk 和 John Spicer 是 EDG 的创建者。
  2. 在最早期,ARM 的编译器也是随 IDE 发布的,如 ADS 时代!

armcc.exe

  The ARM and Thumb® compiler. This compiles your C and C++ code.It supports inline and embedded assemblers, and also includes the Advanced SIMD vectorizingcompiler. ARM和Thumb®编译器。 这将编译您的 C 和 C++代码。它支持内联和嵌入式汇编程序,还包括高级SIMD矢量化编译器。
  编译器支持将以下不同标准的C和C ++源代码编译为 ARM 和 Thumb® 代码:

  • ISO Standard C:1990 source.
  • ISO Standard C:1999 source.
  • ISO Standard C++:2003 source.
  • ISO Standard C++:2011 source.

armcc 符合 Base Standard Application Binary Interface for the ARM Architectur(ARM体系结构的基本标准应用程序二进制接口,BSABI)。 特别是编译器:

D:\ARM\ARM_Compiler_5.06u4>armcc
Product: ARM Compiler 5.06
Component: ARM Compiler 5.06 update 4 (build 422)
Tool: armcc [4d3604]

Usage:         armcc [options] file1 file2 ... filen
Main options:

--arm          Generate ARM code 创建 ARM 代码
--thumb        Generate Thumb code 创建 Thumb 代码
--c90          Switch to C mode (default for .c files) 切换到C模式 (默认是 .c 文件)
--cpp          Switch to C++ mode (default for .cpp files) 切换到C++模式 (默认 .cpp 文件)
-O0            Minimum optimization 最小优化级别
-O1            Restricted optimization for debugging 受限的调试级别优化
-O2            High optimization 高优化
-O3            Maximum optimization 最大优化
-Ospace        Optimize for codesize 对代码大小进行优化
-Otime         Optimize for maximum performance 优化最大优化级别的运行时间
--cpu <cpu>    Select CPU to generate code for 选择CPU
--cpu list     Output a list of all the selectable CPUs 输出所有被选中的CPU列表
-o <file>      Name the final output file of the compilation 最终输出文件的名字
-c             Compile only, do not link 只进行编译,不链接
--asm          Output assembly code as well as object code 输出汇编以及obj文件
-S             Output assembly code instead of object code 只输出汇编文件
--interleave   Interleave source with disassembly (use with --asm or -S) 交叉反汇编 (use with --asm or -S)
-E             Preprocess the C source code only 仅仅预处理C代码
-D<symbol>     Define <symbol> on entry to the compiler 定义 <symbol> 符号并且传入编译过程
-g             Generate tables for high-level debugging 为高级别调试创建表
-I<directory>  Include <directory> on the #include search path 在编译的时候包含 <directory> 作为头文件搜索目录

其默认的头文件搜索路径如下图所示:
在这里插入图片描述

armasm.exe

  The ARM and Thumb assembler. This assembles ARM and Thumb assembly language sources. ARM 和 Thumb 汇编器。这将汇编 ARM 和 Thumb 汇编语言源文件。

D:\ARM\ARM_Compiler_5.06u4>armasm
Product: ARM Compiler 5.06
Component: ARM Compiler 5.06 update 4 (build 422)
Tool: armasm [4d35cf]
For Educational purposes only
Software supplied by: ARM Limited

Usage:      armasm [options] sourcefile

Options:
--list       listingfile   Write a listing file (see manual for options)    生成列表文件
 -o          outputfile    Name the final output file   命名最终输出文件名
--depend     dependfile    Save 'make' source file dependencies 保留 'make' 源文件依赖
--errors     errorsfile    Put stderr diagnostics to errorsfile 把标准错误判断放入errorsfile
 -I          dir[,dir]     Add dirs to source file search path  添加源文件的搜索目录
--pd
--predefine  directive     Pre-execute a SET{L,A,S} directive   预执行 SET{L,A,S} 指令
--maxcache   <n>           Maximum cache size    (default 8MB)  最大闪存空间 (default 8MB)
--no_esc                   Ignore C-style (\c) escape sequences 忽略C风格(\ c)转义序列
--no_warn                  Turn off Warning messages    关闭警告信息
 -g                        Output debugging tables  输出调试表
--apcs       /<quals>      Make pre-definitions to match the
                           chosen procedure-call standard 进行预定义以匹配选择的程序调用标准
--checkreglist             Warn about out of order LDM/STM register lists   警告LDM/STM寄存器列表出现故障
--help                     Print this information   打印帮助信息
--li                       Little-endian ARM    小端模式的 ARM 
--bi                       Big-endian ARM   大端模式的 ARM
 -M                        Write source file dependency lists to stdout 将源文件依赖关系列表写入stdout
--MD                       Write source file dependency lists to inputfile.d 将源文件依赖关系列表写入inputfile.d
--keep                     Keep local labels in symbol table of object file 将本地标签保存在目标文件的符号表中
--regnames none            Do not predefine register names 不预定义寄存器名称
--split_ldm                Fault long LDM/STM
--unsafe                   Downgrade certain errors to warnings 将某些错误降级为警告
--via        <file>        Read further arguments from <file><file>中读取更多参数
--cpu        <target-cpu>  Set the target ARM core type 设置目标ARM核心类型
--cpu list                 Output a list of all the selectable CPUs 输出所有可选CPU的列表
--fpu        <target-arch> Set target FP architecture version 设置目标FP架构版本
--fpu list                 Output a list of all selectable FP architectures 输出所有可选FP架构的列表
--thumb                    Assemble Thumb instructions  汇编 Thumb 指令
--arm                      Assemble ARM instructions    汇编 ARM 指令

armlink.exe

  The linker. This combines the contents of one or more object files with selected parts of one ormore object libraries to produce an executable program.A 64-bit version of armlink is also provided that can access the greater amount of memoryavailable on 64-bit machines. It supports all the features that are supported by the 32-bit versionof armlink in this release. 连接器。这将一个或多个目标文件的内容与一个或多个对象库的选定部分组合在一起,以生成可执行程序。还提供了64位版本的armlink,可以访问64位计算机上可用的更大内存量。它支持此版本中32位版本的armlink支持的所有功能。
  If you are using ARM Compiler as a standalone product, then the 32-bit version is used bydefault. 如果您使用ARM编译器作为独立产品,则默认使用32位版本。
  For ARM Compiler in DS-5, the linker version depends on the host platform. 32-bit tools havethe 32-bit linker and 64-bit tools have the 64-bit linker. You do not get both versions.For the Microcontroller Developer Kit (MDK), only the 32-bit linker is provided. 对于DS-5中的ARM编译器,链接器版本取决于主机平台。 32位工具具有32位链接器,64位工具具有64位链接器。 您没有获得这两个版本。对于微控制器开发工具包(MDK),仅提供32位链接器。

D:\ARM\ARM_Compiler_5.06u4>armlink
Product: ARM Compiler 5.06
Component: ARM Compiler 5.06 update 4 (build 422)
Tool: armlink [4d35d2]
For Educational purposes only
Software supplied by: ARM Limited

Usage: armlink option-list input-file-list
where
    option-list      is a list of case-insensitive options. 不区分大小写的选项列表。
    input-file-list  is a list of input object and library files. 输入对象或者库文件列表。

General options (abbreviations shown capitalised):
   --help          Print this summary. 显示帮助信息。
   --output file   Specify the name of the output file. 指定输出文件名。
   --via file      Read further arguments from file.

Options for specifying memory map information:
   --partial       Generate a partially linked object. 创建一个被分散链接的对象文件。
   --scatter file  Create the memory map as described in file. 按文件(分散加载文件)中的描述创建内存映射。
   --ro-base n     Set exec addr of region containing RO sections. 设置执行地址空间域,包含RO段(只读数据段)--rw-base n     Set exec addr of region containing RW/ZI sections. 设置执行地址空间域,包含RW/ZI段。

Options for controlling image contents:
   --bestdebug     Add debug information giving best debug view to image.  添加调试信息,为镜像提供最佳调试视图。
   --datacompressor off
                   Do not compress RW data sections. 不要压缩RW数据段。
   --no_debug      Do not add debug information to image. 不添加调试信息。
   --entry         Specify entry sections and entry point. 指定输入段与输入点。
   --libpath       Specify path to find system libraries from. 指定系统库文件路径。
   --userlibpath   Specify path to find user libraries from. 指定用户库文件路径。
   --no_locals     Do not add local symbols to image symbol table. 不要添加局部标号到image的标号列表。
   --no_remove     Do not remove unused sections from image. 不要移除image的未使用段。

Options for controlling image related information:
   --callgraph     Create a static callgraph of functions. 创建一个函数静态调用图。
   --feedback file Generate feedback that can be used by the compiler in file.
   --info topic    List misc. information about image.
                    Available topics: (separate multiple topics with comma)
                     common   List common sections eliminated from the image.
                     debug    List eliminated input debug sections.
                     sizes    List code and data sizes for objects in image.
                     totals   List total sizes of all objects in image.
                     veneers  List veneers that have been generated.
                     unused   List sections eliminated from the image.
   --map           Display memory map of image. 显示image内存映射。
   --symbols       List symbols in image. 列出image符号。
   --xref          List all cross-references between input sections. 列出输入的段之间所有的交叉引用.最终输出会放在.map文件里面。

armar.exe

The librarian. This enables sets of ELF object files to be collected together and maintained inarchives or libraries. You can pass such a library or archive to the linker in place of several ELFfiles. You can also use the archive for distribution to a third party for further applicationdevelopment. 库文件管理工具。 这使得 ELF 对象文件集可以一起收集并维护在原始文件或库中。 您可以将此类库或存档传递给链接器以代替多个ELF文件。 您还可以使用存档分发给第三方以进行进一步的应用程序开发。

D:\ARM\ARM_Compiler_5.06u4>armar
Product: ARM Compiler 5.06
Component: ARM Compiler 5.06 update 4 (build 422)
Tool: armar [4d35c8]

Archive creation and maintenance tool

Command format:

armar options archive [ file_list ]

Wildcards '?' and '*' may be used in file_list

Options:-

 -r         Insert files in <file_list>, replace existing members of the same name.<file_list> 中插入文件, 替换掉已经存在的同名成员。
 -d         Delete the members in <file_list>.<file_list> 中删除成员。
 -x         Extract members in <file_list> placing in files of the same name.<file_list> 中提取同名的成员。
 -m         Move files in <file_list>.<file_list> 中移动文件。
 -p         Print files to stdout. 打印文件到标准输出设备。
 -a pos     Insert/move files after file named <pos>. 插入/删除 <pos> 后面的文件。
 -b pos     Insert/move files before file named <pos>. 插入/删除 <pos> 前面的文件。
 -u         Update older files only, used with -r. 只更新旧的文件,-r 一起使用。

 -n         Do not add a symbol table to an object archive. 不要向 object 文件中添加符号表。
 -s         Force regeneration of archive symbol table. 强制重新生成文档符号表。
 -t         Print table of contents of archive. 打印文档的内容表。
--zs        Show the symbol table. 显示符号表。
--zt        Summarize the archive contents (sizes + entries). 汇总文档内容 (大小和输入)-c         Suppress warning when a new archive is created. 当一个新文档被创建的时候不显示警告。
 -C         Do not overwrite existing files when extracting. 提取的时候不要覆盖一个已经存在的文件。
 -T         Truncate file names to system maximum length. 截取系统最大长度文件名。
 -v         Give verbose output. 提供详细输出。
--create    Force creation of a new archive. 强制创建一个新文档。
--via file  Take additional arguments from via file. 从 via 文件中获取额外参数。
--sizes     List the size of each member and the library total. 列出所有成员大小与库的总大小。
--entries   List sections containing ENTRY points. 列出包括入口点的部分。
--vsn       Print the current Armar Version. 打印最新的armar版本。
--help      Print this message. 打印帮助信息。

Examples:-

        armar -r  mylib.a obj1 obj2 obj3...
        armar -x  mylib.a ?sort*
        armar -d  mylib.a hash.o
        armar -tv ansilib.a

fromelf.exe

The image conversion utility. This can also generate textual information about the input image,such as its disassembly and its code and data size.镜像转换实用程序。 这还可以生成有关输入图像的文本信息,例如其反汇编及其代码和数据大小。

D:\ARM\ARM_Compiler_5.06u4>fromelf
Product: ARM Compiler 5.06
Component: ARM Compiler 5.06 update 4 (build 422)
Tool: fromelf [4d35cb]

ARM image conversion utility. ARM 镜像转换工具
fromelf [options] input_file

Options:
       --help         display this help screen 显示帮助信息
       --vsn          display version information 显示版本信息
       --output file  the output file. (defaults to stdout for -text format) 输出文件名. (默认输出 -text 格式)
       --nodebug      do not put debug areas in the output image 不要输出调试信息到映像文件中
       --nolinkview   do not put sections in the output image 不要输出段信息到映像文件中

Binary Output Formats:
       --bin          Plain Binary 普通二进制
       --m32          Motorola 32 bit Hex 摩托罗拉32位Hex码
       --i32          Intel 32 bit Hex 英特尔32位Hex码
       --vhx          Byte Oriented Hex format 定向字节的 Hex 格式

       --base addr    Optionally set base address for m32,i32 为 m32,i32设置基地址(可选的)

Output Formats Requiring Debug Information 输出格式要求的调试信息
       --fieldoffsets Assembly Language Description of Structures/Classes. Structures/Classes的汇编描述
       --expandarrays Arrays inside and outside structures are expanded. 展开内部和外部结构的数组

Other Output Formats:
       --elf         ELF ELF格式
       --text        Text Information 文本信息

                Flags for Text Information 文本信息的标志
                -v          verbose 详细信息
                -a          print data addresses (For images built with debug) 打印数据的地址信息 (得到的.axf映像文件)
                -c          disassemble code 汇编码
                -d          print contents of data section 打印数据的段内容
                -e          print exception tables 打印异常表
                -g          print debug tables 打印调试表
                -r          print relocation information 打印重定位信息
                -s          print symbol table 打印符号表
                -t          print string table 打印字符表
                -y          print dynamic segment contents 打印动态段内容
                -z          print code and data size information 打印代码与数据的大小信息

IAR

  相比于 ARM 对于编译器的灵活安装,IAR 的编译器则只跟随其 IDE 发布,编译器不独立提供。IAR 安装后,目录就是下面这个样子了:
在这里插入图片描述
这里我们重点关注一下arm目录下的相关内容。其中内容有很多,这里主要介绍一下编译器相关的那些,首先看下图
在这里插入图片描述
  我们可以手动提取其编译器,来作为命令行工具使用。但是对于 IAR 还是不建议这么用,个人感觉 IAR 在设计时,估计没考虑过让用户使用命令行模式来独立使用编译套件,因为其编译套件和其他好多东西都放在了一个目录中,不像ARM 将编译套件独立存放。但是,IAR 的编译套件是支持命令行使用的 ,在其介绍文档中有这么一句话:The compiler, assembler, and linker can also be run from a command line environment,if you want to use them as external tools in an already established project environment. 官方的介绍文档主要就是《 IAR C/C++ Development Guide Compiling and Linking》。

  1. IAR 我用的比较少,主要内容来自于官方文档。管方文档更加详细,如有疑问直接去官方文档查看即可!官方文档目录为 IAR安装目录\arm\doc。具体如下:
    1. 《 IAR C/C++ Development Guide Compiling and Linking》,文档名为 EWARM_DevelopmentGuide.ENU.pdf
    2. 《IAR Assembler Reference Guide》,文档名为 EWARM_AssemblerReference.ENU.pdf
    3. 《C-STAT® Static Analysis Guide》,文档名为 EW_MisraC1998Reference.ENU.pdf
  2. 还可以直接从 IAR 的 IDE 的菜单进入:菜单 -> help
    在这里插入图片描述

iasmarm.exe

  这个是 IAR 的汇编语言的编译器。官方文档是这么介绍的:The IAR Assembler for Arm is a powerful relocating macro assembler with a versatile set of directives and expression operators. The assembler features a built-in C language preprocessor and supports conditional assembly. 大意就是: IAR Assembler for Arm是一个功能强大的重定位宏汇编程序,具有多种指令和表达式运算符。 汇编程序具有内置的C语言预处理程序,并支持条件汇编。该工具官方有个独立的说明文档《IAR Assembler Reference Guide》,里面有该工具的详细使用说明。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iasmarm

    IAR Assembler V8.32.3.193/W32 for ARM
    Copyright 1999-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:        iasmarm {<options>} <sourcefile> {<options>}
Sourcefile:   source file with default extension: .msa, , .asm, or .s

Environment:  IASMARM
Options (specified order is of no importance):
-B            Print debug info for assembler macros
-c{DEAOM}     Listing options
                 D: Disable listing,             E: Disable macro expansion
                 A: List only assembled part     O: List several lines of code
                 M: List Macro definition
-DSYMB        Equivalent to: #define SYMB 1
-DSYMB=xx     Equivalent to: #define SYMB xx
-e            Use big-endian byte order
-Enumber      Allow <number> errors
-f file       Extend command line with <file> <.xcl>
-g            No system include
-G            Open standard input as source
-i            List #included files
-Ipath        Add #include search path
-j            Enable alternative register names, operators and mnemonics
-l file       Generate a list on: <file> <.lst>
-Lpath        Generate a list on: <path> \ <source> <.lst>
-Mab          Change asm.macro argument quote chars,
                  where a is start-of-quote and b is end-of-quote char.
                  default is a == < and b == >.
-N            No header in listing
-o file       Put object  on: <file> <.o>
-Opath        Put object on: <path> \ <source> <.o>
-pnn          Page listing with 'nn' lines/page (10-150)
-r            Enable debugger output in object
-S            Silent operation of assembler
-s{+|-}       Set case sensitivity for user symbols
                 -s and -s+ enables sensitivity, -s- disables it.
-tn           Set tab spacing between 2 and 9 (default 8)
-USYMB        Equivalent to: #undef SYMB
-ws           To make warnings generate exit code 1
-wstring      Disable warnings
                 string: <+|-,><+|-range><,+|-range>...
                 range: low_warning_nr<-high_warning_nr>
                 example: -w turns all warnings off
                          -w-,+10-12,+20 turns all but 10,11,12 and 20 off

-x{DI2}       Generate cross-reference list
                 D: Show all #defines, I: Show Internal table
                 2: Dual line space listing
--aarch64     Generate code for AArch64, same as --cpu_mode A64

--abi {lp64|ilp32}
              Specify ABI for AArch64: ilp32 or lp64.
--arm         Generate code in arm mode, same as --cpu_mode arm

--cmse
              Target secure mode in CMSE (ARMv8-M security extensions)
--cpu core    Specify target core
                 Valid options are core names such as Cortex-M3
                 and architecture names such as 7M
                 Default is Cortex-M3
--cpu_mode {arm|a|thumb|t}
              Select default mode for CODE directive, ARM is default

--endian {little|l|big|b}
              Specify target byte order
--fpu {VFPv1|VFPv2|VFPv3{_D16}{_FP16}|VFP9-S|none}
              Specify target FPU coprocessor support
                 Default is none, which selects the software
                 floating-point library.
--legacy {legacyOption}
              Generate object files compatible with
              older toolchains. Valid options are:
              RVCT3.0
--no_dwarf3_cfi
              Suppress Dwarf 3 Call Frame Information instructions
--no_it_verification
              Do not verify that the instructions following
              an IT instruction has the correct condition set

--no_literal_pool
              Use MOV32 for LDR Rd,=expr (requires ARMv7-M)
--no_path_in_file_macros
              Strip path from __FILE__ macros
--source_encoding {locale|utf8}
Encoding to use for source files with no BOM
--suppress_vfe_header
              Do not generate VFE header info

--system_include_directory <path>
              Set system header directory
--thumb       Generate code in thumb mode, same as --cpu_mode thumb

--version     Output version info and exit

iccarm.exe

  这个是 IAR 的 C/C++ 编译器。官方文档是这么介绍的:The IAR C/C++ Compiler for Arm is a state-of-the-art compiler that offers the standard features of the C and C++ languages, plus extensions designed to take advantage of the Arm-specific facilities.大意就是: IAR C / C ++ Compiler for Arm是一个最先进的编译器,提供C和C ++语言的标准功能,以及旨在利用Arm特定功能的扩展。
  默认使用的头文件目录.\arm\inc\<vendor>

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iccarm

   IAR ANSI C/C++ Compiler V8.32.3.193/W32 for ARM
   Copyright 1999-2019 IAR Systems AB.
   PC-locked license - IAR Embedded Workbench for ARM

Available command line options:
--aapcs {std|vfp}
                Specify calling convention.
--aeabi         Generate aeabi compliant code
--align_sp_on_irq
                Generate code to align SP on entry to __irq functions
--arm           Generate code in arm mode, same as --cpu_mode arm
--c++           C++
--c89           Use C89 standard
--char_is_signed
                'Plain' char is treated as signed char
--char_is_unsigned
                'plain' char is treated as unsigned char
--cmse          Enable CMSE secure object generation
--cpu core      Specify target core
                Valid options are core names such as Cortex-M3
                and architecture names such as 7M
                Cortex-M3 is default
--cpu_mode {arm|a|thumb|t}
                Select default mode for functions, arm is default
-D symbol[=value]
                Define macro (same as #define symbol [value])
--debug
-r              Insert debug info in object file
--dependencies=[i|m|n][s][lw][b] file|directory|+
                List file dependencies
                   i     Include filename only (default)
                   m     Makefile style (multiple rules)
                   n     Makefile style (one rule)
                   s     Don't include system file dependencies
                   l     Use locale encoding instead of UTF-8
                   w     Use little endian UTF-16 instead of UTF-8
                   b     Use a Byte Order Mark in UTF-8 output
                (+: output same as -o, only with .d extension)
--deprecated_feature_warnings [+|-]feature,[+|-]feature,...
                Enable (+) or disable (-) warnings about deprecated features:
                   attribute_syntax         Warn about attribute syntax that
                                            will change
                   preprocessor_extensions  Warn about use of migration
                                            preprocessor extensions
                   segment_pragmas          Warn about use of #pragma constseg/
                                            dataseg/memory
--diagnostics_tables file|directory
                Dump diagnostic message tables to file
--diag_error tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as error diagnostics
--diag_remark tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as remark diagnostics
--diag_suppress tag,tag,...
                Suppress the list of tags as diagnostics
--diag_warning tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as warning diagnostics
--discard_unused_publics
                Discard unused public functions and variables
--dlib_config name|path
                Specify DLib library configuration
--do_explicit_zero_opt_in_named_sections
                Allow zero init optimization for variables in named
                sections/segments
-e              Enable IAR C/C++ language extensions
--enable_hardware_workaround waid[,waid[...]]
                Generate hardware workaround for specified problem
--enable_restrict
                Enable the restrict keyword
--endian {little|l|big|b}
                Select byte order, little-endian is default
--enum_is_int   Force the size of all enumeration types to be at least 4 bytes
--error_limit limit
                Stop after this many errors (0 = no limit)
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--fpu {VFPv2|VFPv3{_D16}{_FP16}|VFPv4{_sp}|VFP9-S|none}
                Specify target FPU coprocessor support
                Default is none, which selects the software
                floating-point library.
--generate_entries_without_bounds
                Generate functions for use from non-instrumented code
--guard_calls   Use a guard call for a function static initialization
--header_context
                Adds include file context to diagnostics
-I directory    Add #include search directory
--ignore_uninstrumented_pointers
                Disable checking of accesses via pointers from uninstrumented
                functions
-l[c|C|D|E|a|A|b|B][N][H] file|directory
                Output list file
                   c     C source listing
                   C        with assembly code
                   D        with pure assembly code
                   E        with non-sequential assembly code
                   a     Assembler file
                   A        with C source
                   b     Basic assembler file
                   B        with C source
                   N     Do not include diagnostics
                   H     Include header file source lines
--lock_regs registers
                Prevent compiler from using specified registers (R4-R11).
--macro_positions_in_diagnostics
                Use positions inside macros in diagnostics
--make_all_definitions_weak
                Make all variable and function definitions weak
--max_cost_constexpr_call limit
                Maximum cost (number of calls/number of loop iterations) when
                evaluating a top-level constexpr call
--max_depth_constexpr_call limit
                Maximum depth of recursion when evaluating a top-level
                constexpr call
--mfc           Enable multiple file compilation
--misrac1998[=arg,arg,...]
                Enable MISRA-C 1998 diagnostics
                    all       Enable all rules
                    required  Enable all required rules
                    i         Enable rule i
                    i-j       Enable rule i through j
                    ~i        Disable rule i
                    ~i-j      Disable rule i through j
--misrac2004[=arg,arg,...]
                Enable MISRA-C 2004 diagnostics
                    all       Enable all rules
                    required  Enable all required rules
                    X         Enable rule or chapter
                    X-Y       Enable range
                    ~X        Disable rule or chapter
                    ~X-Y      Disable range
                  where X and Y is one of:
                    i         All rules in chapter i
                    i.j       Rule i.j
--misrac_verbose
                Enable verbose MISRA C messages
--nonportable_path_warnings
                Enable warning for non-matching case in paths
--no_alignment_reduction
                Disable alignment reduction of simple thumb functions
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--no_call_frame_info
                Suppress output of call frame information
--no_clustering Disable static clustering for static and global variables
--no_code_motion
                Disable code motion
--no_const_align
                Turn off the alignment optimization for constants
--no_cse        Disable common sub-expression elimination
--no_exceptions Disable C++ exception support
--no_fragments  Do not generate section fragments
--no_inline     Disable function inlining
--no_literal_pool
                Generate code that does not issue read request to .text
--no_loop_align Disable alignment of labels in loops (Thumb2)
--no_mem_idioms Disable idiom recognition for memcpy/memset/memclr
--no_path_in_file_macros
                Strip path from __FILE__ and __BASE_FILE__ macros
--no_rtti       Disable C++ runtime type information support
--no_rw_dynamic_init
                Don't allow C-object to be initialized at runtime
--no_scheduling Disable instruction scheduling
--no_size_constraints
                Remove limits for code expansion
--no_static_destruction
                Do not emit code to destroy C++ static variables
--no_system_include
                Do not search in the default system header directory
--no_tbaa       Disable type based alias analysis
--no_typedefs_in_diagnostics
                Do not use typedefs when printing types
--no_unaligned_access
                Don't generate unaligned accesses
--no_uniform_attribute_syntax
                Use old meaning for IAR type attributes before initial type
--no_unroll     Disable loop unrolling
--no_var_align  Turn off the alignment optimization for variables
--no_warnings   Disable generation of warnings
--no_wrap_diagnostics
                Don't wrap long lines in diagnostic messages
-O[n|l|m|h|hs|hz]
                Select level of optimization:
                   n   No optimizations
                   l   Low optimizations (default)
                   m   Medium optimizations
                   h   High optimizations
                   hz  High optimizations, tuned for small code size
                   hs  High optimizations, tuned for high speed
                       (-O without argument) The same setting as -Oh
--only_stdout   Use stdout only (no console output on stderr)
--output file|path
-o file|path    Specify object file
--pending_instantiations limit
                Maximum number of instantiations of a given template in
                progress at a time (0 -> no limit)
--predef_macros file|directory
                Output predefined macros
--preinclude filename
                Include file before normal source
--preprocess=[c][n][s] file|directory
                Preprocessor output
                   c     Include comments
                   n     Preprocess only
                   s     Suppress #line directives
--public_equ symbol[=value]
                Define public assembler symbol (EQU)
--relaxed_fp    Enable floating point optimizations that may affect the result
--remarks       Enable generation of remarks
--require_prototypes
                Require prototypes for all called or public functions
--ropi          Generate read-only position independent code
--runtime_checking check,check,...
                Instrument code to do runtime checks for the selected problems:
                   bounds              Check pointer bounds
                   bounds_no_checks    Track pointer bounds, but emit no checks
                   div_by_zero         Check division by zero
                   implicit_integer_conversion
                                       Check only implicit integer conversion
                   integer_conversion  Check any integer conversion
                   signed_overflow     Check for signed integer overflow
                   signed_shift        Check for overflow in signed shift
                   switch              Check for unhandled cases in switch
                                       statements
                   unsigned_overflow   Check for unsigned integer overflow
                   unsigned_shift      Check for overflow in unsigned shift
--rwpi          Generate read-write position independent code
--rwpi_near     Generate read-write position independent code
--section section-name=new section-name
                Rename section
--silent        Silent operation
--source_encoding {locale|utf8}
                Encoding to use for source files with no BOM
--stack_protection
                Insert stack smash protection
--strict        Strict C/C++ standard language rules
--system_include_dir directory
                Set system header directory
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--thumb         Generate code in thumb mode, same as --cpu_mode thumb
--uniform_attribute_syntax
                Same syntax for IAR type attributes as for const/volatile
--use_c++_inline
                Use C++ inline semantics in C mode
--use_paths_as_written
                Use paths as written in debug information
                (normally absolute paths are used)
--use_unix_directory_separators
                Use forward slashes in paths in debug information
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--vectorize     Perform autovectorization
--version       Output version information and exit
--vla           Allow variable length arrays
--warnings_affect_exit_code
                Warnings affect exit code
--warnings_are_errors
                All warnings are errors
--warn_about_c_style_casts
                Warn about uses of C-style casts in EC++/C++

IDE中有两个工具可将应用程序源文件转换为中间文件目标文件。 IAR C / C ++编译器和IAR汇编器。 两者都产生行业标准格式ELF中的可重定位目标文件,包括DWARF调试信息的格式。下图显示了编译过程:
在这里插入图片描述

ilinkarm.exe

  这个是 IAR 的连接器。官方文档是这么介绍的:The IAR ILINK Linker for Arm is a powerful, flexible software tool for use in the development of embedded controller applications. It is equally well suited for linking small, single-file, absolute assembler programs as it is for linking large, relocatable input, multi-module, C/C++, or mixed C/C++ and assembler programs. 大意就是:IAR ILINK Linker for Arm是一款功能强大,灵活的软件工具,可用于嵌入式控制器应用程序的开发。 它同样适用于链接小型,单文件,绝对汇编程序,因为它用于链接大型可重定位输入,多模块,C / C ++或混合C / C ++和汇编程序。
  ilinkarm 使用并生成行业标准的ELF和DWARF作为对象格式文件。在.\arm\config目录下,包含了针对各平台的连接器使用的配置文件。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>ilinkarm

   IAR ELF Linker V8.32.3.193/W32 for ARM
   Copyright 2007-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Available command line options:
--advanced_heap Use an advanced heap manager.
--basic_heap    Use a basic heap manager
--BE32          Use old type big-endian mode.
--BE8           Use byte invariant mode.
--bounds_table_size number_of_records[:number_of_buckets]|(number_of_bytes)
                Specify size of bounds checking tables
--call_graph file|directory
                Produce an XML call graph file
--config file   Read linker configuration from file
--config_def symbol=value
                Define a config symbol
--config_search directory
                Look for config files in directory
--cpp_init_routine symbol
                Specify C++ dynamic init routine name
--cpu core      Specify target core
                Valid options are core names such as Cortex-M3
                and architecture names such as 7M
                default is extracted from objects
--debug_heap    Use heap with runtime checks
--default_to_complex_ranges
                Make "complex ranges" the default in initialize directives
--define_symbol symbol=value
                Define absolute symbol
--dependencies=[i|m|n][s][lw][b] file|directory|+
                List file dependencies
                   i     Include filename only (default)
                   m     Makefile style (multiple rules)
                   n     Makefile style (one rule)
                   s     Don't include system file dependencies
                   l     Use locale encoding instead of UTF-8
                   w     Use little endian UTF-16 instead of UTF-8
                   b     Use a Byte Order Mark in UTF-8 output
                (+: output same as -o, only with .d extension)
--diagnostics_tables file|directory
                Dump diagnostic message tables to file
--diag_error tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as error diagnostics
--diag_remark tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as remark diagnostics
--diag_suppress tag,tag,...
                Suppress the list of tags as diagnostics
--diag_warning tag,tag,...
                Treat the list of tags as warning diagnostics
--do_segment_pad
                Pad segments to 4 byte alignment
--enable_hardware_workaround waid[,waid[...]]
                Generate hardware workaround for specified problem
--enable_stack_usage
                Enable stack usage analysis
--entry symbol  Set program entry point
--error_limit limit
                Stop after this many errors (0 = no limit)
--exception_tables action
                Generate exception tables for modules lacking them
                  nocreate    Do not generate entries (default)
                  unwind      Generate unwind entries
                  cantunwind  Generate nounwind entries
--export_builtin_config file|directory
                Export the builtin configuration
--extra_init routine
                Call extra init routine if defined
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--force_exceptions
                Always include exception code
--force_output  Produce an output file in spite of errors
--fpu {VFPv1|VFPv2|VFPv3{_D16}{_FP16}|VFP9-S|none}
                Specify target FPU coprocessor support
                Default is extracted from objects.
--ignore_uninstrumented_pointers
                Disable checking of accesses via pointers in memory with
                no bounds
--image_input file[,symbol[,section[,alignment]]]
                Put image file in section
--import_cmse_lib_in file
                Read previous version of import library for building non-secure image
--import_cmse_lib_out file|directory
                Produce import library for building non-secure image
--inline        Try to inline small functions.
--keep symbol   Require global symbol
--log topic,topic,...
                Do log output for the selected topics
                   call_graph        Call graph with stack usage
                   crt_routine_selection
                                     CRT routine implementation selection
                   demangle          Demangle symbols in log output
                   fragment_info     Supplementary info for --log sections
                   initialization    Initialization decisions
                   inlining          Small function inlining
                   libraries         Automatic library selection
                   merging           Results of --merge_duplicate_sections
                   modules           Module selection
                   redirects         Redirected symbols
                   sections          Section fragment selection
                   unused_fragments  Unused section fragments
                   veneers           Veneer statistics
--log_file file Specify file for log output
--mangled_names_in_messages
                Include mangled symbol names in diagnostics
--manual_dynamic_initialization
                Don't perform dynamic initialization during startup
--map file|directory
                Produce a linker list file
--merge_duplicate_sections
                Merge equivalent read-only sections
--misrac1998[=arg,arg,...]
                Enable MISRA-C 1998 diagnostics
                    all       Enable all rules
                    required  Enable all required rules
                    i         Enable rule i
                    i-j       Enable rule i through j
                    ~i        Disable rule i
                    ~i-j      Disable rule i through j
--misrac2004[=arg,arg,...]
                Enable MISRA-C 2004 diagnostics
                    all       Enable all rules
                    required  Enable all required rules
                    X         Enable rule or chapter
                    X-Y       Enable range
                    ~X        Disable rule or chapter
                    ~X-Y      Disable range
                  where X and Y is one of:
                    i         All rules in chapter i
                    i.j       Rule i.j
--misrac_verbose
                Enable verbose MISRA C messages
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--no_dynamic_rtti_elimination
                Disable dynamic rtti elimination
--no_entry      This program has no entry point
--no_exceptions Signal an error if exceptions are used
--no_fragments  Always link entire sections
--no_free_heap  Use a heap manager with no 'free'
--no_inline func,func,...
                Do not inline any of the specified functions
--no_library_search
                Disable automatic runtime library search
--no_literal_pool
                Don't generate literal pool in code memory
--no_locals     Do not include local symbols in output symbol table
--no_range_reservations
                Do not reserve address ranges for absolute symbols
--no_remove     Do not remove unused sections
--no_vfe        Disable Virtual Fuction Elimination
--no_warnings   Disable generation of warnings
--no_wrap_diagnostics
                Don't wrap long lines in diagnostic messages
--only_stdout   Use stdout only (no console output on stderr)
--output file
-o file         Specify output file
--pi_veneers    Generate position independent veneers.
--place_holder symbol[,size[,section[,alignment]]]
                Reserve a place in ROM for later use
--preconfig file
                Read before normal linker configuration file
--printf_multibytes
                Enable multibyte support in printf & friends
--redirect orig=replacement
                Redirect symbol refs to replacement symbol
--remarks       Enable generation of remarks
--scanf_multibytes
                Enable multibyte support in scanf & friends
--search directory
-L directory    Look for object and library files in directory
--semihosting[=iar_breakpoint]
                Link with debug interface.
                Specify interface to override default.
--silent        Silent operation
--stack_usage_control file
                Read stack usage control file
--strip         Do not include debug information
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--threaded_lib  Configure runtime library for use with threads
--timezone_lib  Enable timezone and daylight savings support
--treat_rvct_modules_as_softfp
                link softfp versions of math function for modules
                compiled with RVCT even though they are built with
                vfp calling-convention
--use_full_std_template_names
                Don't use short names for standard C++ templates
--use_optimized_variants no|auto|small|fast
                Use optimized variants of DLIB library functions
                  no     Do not use redirects to use optimized variants
                  auto   Use redirects based on attributes in object files
                         (default)
                  small  Always use a small variant if available
                  fast   Always use a fast variant if available
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--version       Output version information and exit
--vfe=[forced]  Perform Virtual Function Elimination
                  forced      Force the use of VFE for all modules
                              with VFE information.
--warnings_affect_exit_code
                Warnings affect exit code
--warnings_are_errors
                All warnings are errors
--whole_archive archive
                Link all modules in archive

IAR ILINK链接器(ilinkarm.exe)用于构建最终应用程序。通常,链接器需要以下信息作为输入:

  • 几个目标文件,可能还有某些库
  • 程序开始标签(默认设置)
  • 链接器配置文件,用于描述目标系统内存中代码和数据的放置

下图显示了链接过程:
在这里插入图片描述
IAR ILINK链接器生成ELF格式的绝对目标文件,其中包含可执行镜像。 链接后,可以使用生成的绝对可执行映像

  • 加载到IAR C-SPY调试器或任何其他兼容的外部调试器读取ELF和DWARF。
  • 使用flash / PROM编程器对flash / PROM进行编程。 在此之前可能必须使用ielftool将镜像中的实际字节转换为标准的Motorola 32-bit S-record 格式或Intel Hex-32格式。

iarchive.exe

档案管理工具,类似于 ARM 的 armar 和 GCC 的 ar。用于创建和操作几个ELF目标文件的库(存档)。库文件包含多个可重定位的ELF对象模块,每个模块都可以由链接器独立使用。 与直接指定给链接器的对象模块相比,只有在需要时才包含库中的每个模块。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iarchive

   IAR Archive Tool V10.4.14.1149
   Copyright 2008-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          iarchive [command] archive obj1 ... objN
                iarchive [command] obj1 ... objN -o archive
                iarchive [command] archive

Available command line options:
--create        Create new archive
--delete
-d              Delete module(s) from archive
--extract
-x              Extract module(s) from archive
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--output archive
-o archive      Name of archive file
--replace
-r              Replace or add module(s) to archive
--symbols       List symbol table of archive
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--toc
-t              List archive table of content
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--verbose
-V              verbose operation
--version       Output version information and exit
--vtoc          List archive table of content (verbose)

使用示例:

  1. 使用源对象文件module1.omodule.2.omodule3.o 创建了一个名为mylibrary.a的库文件:iarchive mylibrary.a module1.o module2.o module3.o
  2. 列出 mylibrary.a中的内容:iarchive --toc mylibrary.a
  3. This example replaces module3.o in the library with the content in the module3.o file and appends module4.o to mylibrary.a:iarchive --replace mylibrary.a module3.o module4.o

ielftool.exe

ARM ELF文件工具,类似于 ARM 的 fromelf 和 GCC 的 elfedit。对ELF可执行映像执行各种转换(例如,填充,校验和,格式转换等)。安装目录.\arm \ src\elfutils下提供了 ielftool 源代码(Microsoft VisualStudio项目)。 如果对如何生成校验和或格式转换要求有特定要求,则可以相应地修改源代码。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iarchive

   IAR Archive Tool V10.4.14.1149
   Copyright 2008-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          iarchive [command] archive obj1 ... objN
                iarchive [command] obj1 ... objN -o archive
                iarchive [command] archive

Available command line options:
--create        Create new archive
--delete
-d              Delete module(s) from archive
--extract
-x              Extract module(s) from archive
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--output archive
-o archive      Name of archive file
--replace
-r              Replace or add module(s) to archive
--symbols       List symbol table of archive
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--toc
-t              List archive table of content
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--verbose
-V              verbose operation
--version       Output version information and exit
--vtoc          List archive table of content (verbose)

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>ielftool

   IAR ELF Tool V10.4.14.1149 [BUILT at IAR]
   Copyright 2007-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:       ielftool input_file output_file

Available command line options:
--bin           Save as raw binary
--checksum sym:size,algo[:[1|2][a|m|z][r][R][o][x][i|p][W|L]][,start]
           ;range[;range...]
                Generate checksum
                   sym       Checksum symbol
                   size      Length of the symbol in bytes
                   algo      Algorithm: sum, sum8wide, sum32, crc16, crc32
                             crc64iso, crc64ecma or crc=poly
                   1|2       Complement: 1 or 2
                   a|m|z     Reverse the bit order for:
                               input bytes only: a
                               input bytes and final checksum: m
                               final checksum only: z
                   o         Output the Rocksoft model specification
                   r         Reverse the byte order within each word
                   R         Traverse the range(s) in reverse order
                   x         Toggle the endianess of the checksum
                   i|p       Use initial value normally: i
                             Prefix input data with the start value: p
                   W|L       Use a checksum unit length of 2 bytes: W
                             Use a checksum unit length of 4 bytes: L
                   start     Initial checksum value (defaults to 0)
                   range     Do checksum of bytes in range
--fill [v;]pattern;range[;range...]
                Specify fill
                   v         Virtual fill, do not generate actual filler bytes.
                             This can be used for checksums and parities.
                   pattern   Sequence of filler bytes
                   range     Fill range
--front_headers Move program and section headers to the front of the ELF file.
--ihex          Save as 32-bit linear Intel Extended hex
--offset [-]offset
                Add (subtract if - is used) offset to all address records.
                This only works for the output formats: Motorola S-records,
                Intel Hex, Simple-Code and TI-TXT
--parity sym:size,algo:flashbase[:[r][[B|W|L]];range[;range...]
                Generate parity bits
                   sym       Parity symbol
                   size      Length of the symbol in bytes
                   algo      Parity algorithm: odd, even
                   flashbase Ignore bytes before this address
                   r         Traverse the range(s) in reverse order
                   B         Use a parity unit length of 1 byte
                   W         Use a parity unit length of 2 bytes
                   L         Use a parity unit length of 4 bytes
                   range     Perform parity on bytes in this range
--self_reloc relocator[,jtc]
                Create self-relocating image with relocator
                   jtc       Number of jump table entries
--silent        Silent operation
--simple        Save as Simple-code
--simple-ne     Save as Simple-code without entry record
--srec          Save as Motorola S-records
--srec-len length
                Restrict the length of S-records
--srec-s3only   Restrict the type of S-records to S3 (and S7)
--strip         Remove all section headers and non-program sections
--titxt         Save as Texas Instruments TI-TXT
--verbose       Print all performed operations
--version       Output tool version

使用示例:

  1. This example fills a memory range with 0xFF and then calculates a checksum on the same range:ielftool my_input.out my_output.out --fill 0xFF;0–0xFF --checksum __checksum:4,crc32;0–0xFF

ielfdumparm.exe

针对 ARM ELF 格式的文件的 Dumper工具。类似于 GCC 的 objdump,用于创建ELF可重定位或可执行映像内容的文本表示。主要用于以下三个方面:

  • To produce a listing of the general properties of the input file and the ELF segments and ELF sections it contains. This is the default behavior when no command line options are used.生成输入文件的常规属性列表以及它包含的ELF段和ELF节。 当没有使用命令行选项时,这是默认行为。
  • To also include a textual representation of the contents of each ELF section in the input file. To specify this behavior, use the command line option --all .还包括输入文件中每个ELF部分内容的文本表示。 要指定此行为,请使用命令行选项–all。
  • To produce a textual representation of selected ELF sections from the input file. To specify this behavior, use the command line option --section 从输入文件生成所选ELF节的文本表示。 要指定此行为,请使用命令行选项–section
E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>ielfdumparm

   IAR ELF Dumper V8.32.3.193 for ARM
   Copyright 2007-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          IElfDump input_file [output_file]

Available command line options:
-a              All sections, except strtab sections
--aarch64       Disassemble in Aarch64 mode if mode cannot be deduced by the image.
--all           Dump all sections
--arm           Disassemble in Arm mode if mode cannot be deduced by the image.
--code          Dump only code sections
--disasm_data   Use disassembly format for data sections
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--no_header     Do not produce a list header
--no_rel_sections
                Do not output associated .rel sections
--no_strtab     Do not include strtab sections
--no_utf8_in    Non-IAR input files are by default assumed to use UTF-8
                encoding unless this option is used.
--output file
-o file         Name of text file to create
--range A-B     Disassemble only addresses in the specified range
                (from A to B).
--raw           Use raw text format
--section #|name[,...]
-s #|name[,...] Dump only section(s) with given numbers/names
--source        Include source in disassembled code in executables
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--thumb         Disassemble in thumb mode if mode cannot be deduced by the image.
--use_full_std_template_names
                Don't use short names for standard C++ templates
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--version       Output version information and exit

iobjmanip.exe

针对 ARM ELF 格式的 Object 文件的操作工具。用于执行ELF目标文件的低级操作。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iobjmanip


   IAR Object File Manipulator V10.4.14.1149
   Copyright 2009-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          iobjmanip <op1>[,...<opN>] <src> <dest>

Available command line options:
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--remove_file_path
                remove path information from file symbol
--remove_section #|name
                remove matching section(s)
--rename_section (#|name)=name
                rename matching section(s)
--rename_symbol name=name
                rename matching symbol
--strip         strip debug information
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--version       Output version information and exit

使用示例:

  1. This example renames the section .example in input.o to .example2 and stores the result in output.o:iobjmanip --rename_section .example=.example2 input.o output.o

isymexport.exe

绝对符号导出器。 从ROM映像文件中导出绝对符号,以便在链接附加应用程序时使用它们。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>isymexport

   IAR Absolute Symbol Exporter V10.4.14.1149
   Copyright 2008-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          ISymExport input_file output_file

Available command line options:
--edit steering_file
                Show/hide/rename symbols
--export_locals[=symbol_prefix]
                Export local variable and function symbols
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--generate_vfe_header
                Generate vfe header section
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--ram_reserve_ranges[=symbol_prefix]
                Generate symbols to reserve all occupied RAM ranges
--reserve_ranges[=symbol_prefix]
                Generate symbols to reserve all occupied ranges
--show_entry_as[=name]
                Export the entry point of the program as name
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--version       Output version information and exit

iexe2obj.exe

IAR ELF可重定位对象创建器。从可执行的ELF目标文件创建可重定位的ELF目标文件。

E:\Program Files (x86)\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 8.2\arm\bin>iexe2obj

   IAR ELF Exe to Object Tool V10.4.14.1149
   Copyright 2008-2019 IAR Systems AB.

Usage:          IExe2Obj input_file output_file

Available command line options:
-f file         Read command line options from file
--f file        Read command line options from file and report dependency
--hide_symbols  Hide all symbols in the image
--keep_mode_symbols
                Keep mode symbols in the image
--no_bom        Don't use a Byte Order Mark in Unicode output
--prefix prefix Set section/symbol name prefix
--text_out encoding
                Encoding to use for text output files
                   utf8                UTF-8
                   utf16le             Little-endian UTF-16
                   utf16be             Big-endian UTF-16
                   locale              Locale specific encoding
--utf8_text_in  Non-source text input files with no BOM use UTF-8 encoding
--version       Output version information and exit
--wrap function Create wrapper for function

GCC for ARM

  GCC 全称为 GNU Compiler Collection。 GCC 是几种主要编程语言的编译器的集成分发。 这些语言目前包括 C,C ++,Objective-C,Objective-C ++,Fortran,Ada,Go 和 BRIG(HSAIL)。
  GCC 原名为 GNU C 语言编译器(GNU C Compiler),因为它原本只能处理 C语言。GCC 很快地扩展,变得可处理 C++。后来又扩展能够支持更多编程语言,如 Fortran、Pascal、Objective-C、Java、Ada、Go 以及各类处理器架构上的汇编语言等,所以改名GNU编译器套件(GNU Compiler Collection)。 更名之后,原来的针对于 C 语言的编译器名字还叫 gcc,针对 C++ 的编译器叫做 g++ 。
  GCC for ARM 则是基于 GCC 开发的,用来编译生成 ARM 内核可执行文件的编译套件,俗称 ARM 交叉编译套件。 相比于以上两个巨贵的编译器,GCC for ARM 因为是基于开源的 GCC 的,因此是免费的。目前主要由三大主流工具商提供,第一是 ARM,第二是 Codesourcery,第三是 Linora。目前我们用的针对 ARM 芯片的集成开发环境(IDE),除了 IAR 和 ARM 自己的 Keil、DS 等都是使用 GCC for ARM 的编译器!

首先,看看 ARM 交叉编译工具链的命名规则:arch [-vendor] [-os] [-(gnu)eabi] [-gcc]

  • arch: 体系架构,如 ARM,MIPS
  • vendor: 工具链提供商,没有 vendor 时,用 none 代替;
  • os: 目标操作系统,没有 os 支持时,也用 none 代替
  • eabi: 嵌入式应用二进制接口(Embedded Application Binary Interface)

如果同时没有 vendor 和 os 支持,则只用一个 none 代替。例如 arm-none-eabi 中的 none 表示既没有 vendor 也没有 os 支持。 前面说过,GCC for ARM 则是基于 GCC 开发的。因此,其和 GCC 一样是一套命令行工具的集合,理论上可以将它集成到其他任何集成开发环境中,从而不直接使用命令行。GCC for ARM 中的各命令行工具与 GCC 中的各命令行工具都是对应的,功能基本一致,仅仅是名字有些改变!

Codesourcery Toolchain

  Codesourcery推出的产品叫 Sourcery G++ Lite Edition,其中基于 command-line 的编译器是免费的,在官网上可以下载,而其中包含的 IDE 和 debug 工具是收费的。Codesourcery 公司(目前已经被Mentor收购)基于GCC推出的ARM交叉编译工具。可用于交叉编译 ARM MCU 芯片,如 ARM7、ARM9、Cortex-M/R 芯片程序。
  目前 CodeSourcery 已经由明导国际(Mentor Graphics)收购,所以原本的网站风格已经全部变为 Mentor 样式,这货被收之后,不知道怎么下载其编译工具链。。。

  • arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc: 用于交叉编译ARM(32位)系统中所有环节的代码,包括裸机程序、u-boot、Linux kernel、filesystem和App应用程序。
  • arm-none-elf-gcc: 用于交叉编译ARM MCU(32位)芯片,如ARM7、ARM9、Cortex-M/R芯片程序。

Linaro Toolchain

   Linaro 是在 2010 年台北国际计算机展( COMPUTEX )期间,ARM、Freescale、Samsung ,ST-Ericsson、德州仪器(TI)与IBM等6家大厂,宣布合资成立的非赢利 Linux 基础架构软件研发商。其基于 GCC 推出的 ARM 交叉编译工具如下图所示:
在这里插入图片描述
下载地址为:https://www.linaro.org/downloads/ 。从上图不难看出,Linaro 提供的交叉编译环境,仅针对于Cortex-A 内核,其他 ARM 内核则需要去 ARM 官网下载!

  • aarch64-linux-gnu: 针对于目标平台是 Linux 系统,用于交叉编译 ARMv8 64位目标中的裸机程序、u-boot、Linux kernel、filesystem 和 App 应用程序。
  • arm-linux-gnueabihf: 针对于目标平台是 Linux 系统,用于交叉编译ARM(32位)系统中所有环节的代码,包括裸机程序、u-boot、Linux kernel、filesystem和 App 应用程序。
  • arm-eabi-gcc: 用于编译 ARM 架构的裸机系统,包括 ARM Linux 的 boot、kernel,不适用编译 Linux 应用 Application
  • aarch64-elf: 用于编译 ARM v8 64位 架构的裸机系统,包括 ARM Linux 的 boot、kernel,不适用编译 Linux 应用 Application

  正如官网的说明,官方发布的编译好二进制可执行编译器文件,仅在 Linux 系统( Ubuntu LTS)进行了测试。 目前,官方没有提供其他平台的可执行程序!

ARM Toolchain

  ARM 除了有自己的专用编译器之外,还维护了一套基于 GCC 的交叉编译工具链。估计是为了能更有效的占有市场吧!绝大多数第三方的 IDE 都是使用这一套交叉编译工具链。

arm-none-eabi

  用于编译 ARM 架构的裸机系统(包括 ARM Linux 的 boot、kernel,不适用编译 Linux 应用 Application),所以不支持那些跟操作系统关系密切的函数,比如fork,它使用的是 newlib 这个专用于嵌入式系统的C库。
  作为维持和增强 GCC 编译器支持 ARM 架构的持续承诺的一部分,ARM 正在维护一个 GNU 工具链,其 GCC 源分支针对嵌入式 ARM 处理器,即 Cortex-R / Cortex-M处理器系列,覆盖 Cortex-M0 ,Cortex-M3,Cortex-M4,Cortex-M0 +,Cortex-M7,Armv8-M基线和主线,Cortex-R4,Cortex-R5,Cortex-R7和Cortex-R8。
  作为其中的一部分,ARM 定期发布来自 ARM 嵌入式分支的预构建和测试二进制文件。 这些改进可以免费集成到第三方工具链中,也可以由最终用户直接下载。整套工具链包含以下组件:

  • gcc : gcc-8-branch revision 267074
    svn://gcc.gnu.org/svn/gcc/branches/gcc-8-branch
  • binutils : 2.31 with mainline backports
    git://sourceware.org/git/binutils-gdb.git commit fe554d200d1befdc3bddc9e14f8593ea3446c351
  • newlib and newlib-nano :
    git://sourceware.org/git/newlib-cygwin.git commit df6915f029ac9acd2b479ea898388cbd7dda4974
  • gdb : 8.2 without target sim support
    git://sourceware.org/git/binutils-gdb.git commit fe554d200d1befdc3bddc9e14f8593ea3446c351

   目前由 ARM 来维护开发。使用 launchpad 来维护该项目源码。但是根据之前的公告,launchpad 上不发布编译好的程序和源码包(“As previously announced all new binary and source packages will not be released on Launchpad henceforth, they can be found on:
https://developer.arm.com/open-source/gnu-toolchain/gnu-rm.”),只能从 ARM 官网:https://developer.arm.com/tools-and-software/open-source-software/developer-tools/gnu-toolchain/gnu-rm/downloads 进行下载。下面是,版本发布时间线
在这里插入图片描述
这是目前,我们编写 ARM 裸机程序时,使用最多的交采编译工具链! 安装/解压 之后,目录如下图所示:
在这里插入图片描述
编译器工具中的各工具,与标准的GCC没有太多区别,主要就是针对的平台变了。各工具的功能是一样的!比如:arm-none-eabi-gcc.exe 是C 语言编译器、arm-none-eabi-g++.exe 是 C++ 编译器、arm-none-eabi-ld.exe 是连接器、arm-none-eabi-gdb.exe 是调试器等等。

Cortex-A 专用

  以上交叉编译工具链只支持 ARM Cortex-M/R等系列的核,ARM 官网还提供了针对于 ARM Cortex-A 系列内核的交叉编译工具链,可以从以下地址下载
https://developer.arm.com/tools-and-software/open-source-software/developer-tools/gnu-toolchain/gnu-a/downloads。 具体如下所示:
在这里插入图片描述
需要注意的是,上图中红框全称的就是编译工具链的名字。以 gcc-arm-8.3-2019.03-i686-mingw32-arm-eabi 为例,解压后如下图所示:
在这里插入图片描述
各命令行工具与标准 GCC 也没啥区别!
  再一个需要注意的是,上图中的 i686-mingw32 host 指定是运行平台为 Windows 7 32/64 bits or later;x86_64 host 指定是运行平台为 Ubuntu 14.04 LTS x86_64 or later or RHEL 6 x86_64。也就是说,仅支持 Windows 和 Linux 平台! 整套工具包含以下组件:
在这里插入图片描述
再再一个需要注意的是,编译器的目标平台。

  • AArch32 bare-metal target:32位纯裸机平台
  • AArch64 ELF bare-metal target:64位纯裸机平台
  • AArch64 ELF bare-metal, big-endian target:64位纯裸机平台(大端模式)
  • AArch64 GNU/Linux target:64位 Linux 平台
  • AArch64 GNU/Linux big-endian target:64位 Linux 平台(大端模式)
  • AArch32 target with soft float:32位带软件模式浮点运算
  • AArch32 target with hard float:32位带硬件模式浮点运算

参考

  1. https://www.veryarm.com/
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